|While it's hard to imagine they are capable of such tunnel vision, there are still individuals and organizations that insist that fishing effects are the major force behind the changes we are seeing in fish populations.|
|Washington, January 11, 1999
NOAA announced today that global temperatures in 1998 were the warmest in the past 119 years, since reliable instrument records began. The previous record high surface temperature was set last 1997. The global mean temperature in 1998 was 1.20 °F (0.66°C) above the long-term average value of 56.9°F (13.8°C). This was the 20th consecutive year with an annual global mean surface temperature exceeding the long-term average.
"The persistent 1997-1998 El Niño, which lingered into the first half of the year, and the unprecedented warmth of the Indian Ocean contributed to this record warm year," said NOAA Administrator Dr. D. James Baker
Both land and sea surface temperatures were above the long-term average. Sea surface temperatures were 0.92°F (0.51°C) above normal, while the land surface experienced even greater warmth at 1.84°F (1.02°C) above normal. Tropical latitudes (30°N - 30°S) established a new record by a wide margin, averaging 1.76°F (0.98°C) above the long-term mean, 0.68°F (0.38°C) above the previous record set in 1987. The Northern Hemisphere (30°N - 90°N) also set a record at 2.16°F (1.20°C) above mean. The Southern Hemisphere (30°S-90°S) did not experience record heat, although temperatures averaged 0.65°F (0.36°C) above the long-term mean.
Regional and Seasonal Variations in Global Temperatures
An examination of global temporal and regional temperature anomalies reveals many distinct patterns. For instance, while most of the tropical land mass and ocean surface temperatures averaged above normal, a persistent flow off the Indian Ocean brought relatively cool, cloudy weather to equatorial east Africa during the first half of the year. Many areas in Western Europe and North America experienced their warmest February in 100 years. In June, a record-breaking heat wave in central Russia resulted in huge fires. Australia recorded its highest annual mean temperature since high-quality records began in 1910. Canada reported one of its warmest years since 1948.
A rapid reversal in the sea surface temperature anomaly pattern occurred in the eastern equatorial Pacific as warm anomalies (El Niño) transitioned to cold anomalies (La Niña) during the latter half of the year.
Annual temperatures averaged below the 1880 - 1997 mean over northern sections of Eurasia and southern South America. The cold weather in northern Eurasia was accompanied by excessive spring and autumn snow cover. While Europe and northern Asia experienced harsh early winter conditions late in 1998, much of North America had unusually warm autumn weather. Mild conditions in eastern North America came to an abrupt end as a major arctic blast spread south during the last couple weeks of the year.
Temperatures in the United States
The United States average temperature in 1998 was 54.62°F (12.57°C), which placed the year in a virtual tie with1934 as the warmest year in records dating to1895. The average temperature in 1934 was 54.67°F (12.59°C) and the third warmest year on record was 1921 with an average of 54.42°F (12.46°C). Several regional and seasonal records were also set throughout the year. For example, the region from the Northeast to the Great Lakes experienced its warmest January-May. The Southern Plains experienced its warmest July-September while the Far West saw its third warmest. From the Southern Plains to the Gulf Coast, the warmest May-November was established in 1998. The protracted summer heat wave resulted in extraordinary runs of daily temperatures 90°F or hotter in several Texas and Florida cities. In contrast, California and Nevada experienced their second coolest April-June. September monthly anomalies show that nearly two-thirds of the contiguous United States was much warmer than normal.
The 1998 global average precipitation anomaly for the land surface was less than 0.1 inches (2.5 mm) above the 1900-1997 mean. However, considerable differences were evident in precipitation departures across latitude bands with an average surplus of precipitation in the majority of the Northern Hemisphere, and a deficit elsewhere. Land areas between 30°N and 55°N averaged 2.31 inches (58.7 mm) above normal, more than the equivalent volume of water flowing through the Mississippi River during an entire year. Precipitation also averaged above normal in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes (55°N-85°N). Conversely, the equatorial zone (10°S -10°N) averaged 7.18 inches (182.4 mm) below the long-term mean.
The 1997-98 El Niño event was one of the two strongest this century. It was associated with extremely dry conditions and devastating fires in many areas of the world, including Indonesia, eastern Russia, Brazil, Central America and Florida. The El Niño was also associated with extensive flooding in parts of northern Argentina and coastal Peru. The rapid shift to La Niña conditions at mid-year was associated with extremely heavy rains in many parts of Asia. The Indian monsoon season started later than usual, but ended with massive flooding along the Ganges river valley. Devastating late summer flooding developed on the Yangtze River in China, causing massive damage and killing more than 3000 people. Rain in the African Sahel got off to a slow start, but rainfall was greater than normal across much of the region during the latter half of the season.
Although many regions of South Asia received ample rains during the summer monsoon season, the watersheds along the Mekong River of Southeast Asia and the Indus River in Pakistan experienced extensive droughts. Summer heat and dryness plagued the Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and southern Russia. Canada reported one of the ten driest January-November periods since records began in 1948.
Precipitation in the United States
The United States had the fifth wettest year on record in 1998 with a national average of 32.61 inches (828 mm) of precipitation. The wettest year was 1973 at 33.99 inches (863 mm). Considerable regional and seasonal variation in precipitation anomalies occurred throughout the year. For example, the Southeast and Great Lakes regions had their wettest January-March in 1998, and the West had its wettest January-June.
A record dry April-June resulted in drought conditions from the Southern Plains to the Gulf Coast states. The spring and summer heat and drought led to massive wildfire outbreaks in Florida. Late summer and autumn rains from tropical systems helped abate the dry conditions in the South, while drought intensified in the eastern U.S. The region from the central Atlantic Coast to New York experienced the second driest July-November on record.
Numerous weather-related natural disasters occurred in 1998. A January ice storm caused widespread power outages in eastern Canada and the northeastern United States. The deadliest Florida tornado outbreak on record occurred the night of February 22. A frontal system moving across the Central Plains spawned 20 tornadoes in Oklahoma on October 4, setting a national record for the most twisters ever during a single day in October. The preliminary annual count of tornadoes observed in the United States was 1239 (the average is 1186).
El Niño contributed to the late start of the 1998 Atlantic Hurricane season which, under the influence of La Niña, ended as one of the deadliest in history with 14 named storms. Three hurricanes and four tropical storms caused billions of dollars of damage to the United States. Hurricane Georges devastated the northern Caribbean in late September. Hurricane Mitch, one of the most powerful Atlantic hurricanes on record, devastated many Central American countries in October, and resulted in a staggering loss of life. In the Pacific, October's Supertyphoon Zeb inundated the northern Philippines, Taiwan, and Japan. Only eight days later, Supertyphoon Babs struck the Philippines, submerging parts of Manila.
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